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What every woman can do to prevent cervical cancer

There are actually three positive things that can be said about cervical cancer:

1. Routine Pap tests have made it a much less deadly cancer today than it once was.

2. It is nearly always treatable when found in its early stages.

3. Many of its risk factors are known and preventable.

The cervix is the part of a woman's reproductive system found at the lower end of the uterus. Sperm passes through it to fertilize eggs. Babies pass through it to be born.

Cancer can also develop in it, starting as a series of cell changes.

Cervical cancer usually doesn't cause symptoms until its later stages. That's why it's so important to spot it early—and take steps to stop it from ever starting.

What puts you at risk for cervical cancer?

The biggest risk factor for cancer of the cervix is a virus.

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is spread through sexual contact. Infection is extremely common: Nearly everyone will get at least one type of HPV at some time in their lives, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Of the multiple strains of HPV, only a small number have been linked to the cell changes associated with cervical cancer. But nearly all cases of cervical cancer are linked to infection with HPV, says CDC.

According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), other risk factors for cervical cancer include:

  • Not getting regular Pap tests.
  • Smoking.
  • Giving birth to more than three children.
  • Giving birth before age 17.
  • Being overweight.
  • Not eating enough fruits and vegetables.
  • A family history of cervical cancer.
  • Having taken diethylstilbestrol (DES) to prevent a miscarriage before 1972.
  • A weakened immune system.
  • Being infected with chlamydia.

Using birth control pills for a long time may also increase cervical cancer risk. However, another type of birth control called an intrauterine device (IUD) may actually lower risk.

What you can do, step by step

Lower your risk for HPV infection. There's no definite way to prevent HPV infection, but there are ways to limit your chances of infection, notes the ACS. If you have sex, being in a monogamous relationship can reduce your risk for disease. Using a condom every time you have sex also may help.

Get regular Pap tests. Pap screenings can spot cervical cancer in its earliest stages, when treatment is most effective, and the test can also alert you to cell changes that could develop into cancer later. Ask your doctor how often you should have one and whether you should have an HPV test as well.

Get the HPV vaccine. Males and females from 9 to 45 years old can be vaccinated against HPV, including the strains believed to cause most cases of cervical cancer. Some of the available vaccines also protect against HPV types that cause genital warts or other cancers—those of the throat, mouth, anus, penis, vagina and vulva. For best protection, health experts recommend the vaccine be given at age 11 or 12, before a person becomes sexually active.

Don't smoke. Smoking increases your risk for cervical cancer.

Talk with your doctor

Keep in mind that most strains of HPV don't cause cervical cancer.

The infection is far more likely to go away on its own without causing any health problems than to lead to serious disease.

However, talk to your doctor to make sure you're up-to-date on your Pap tests.

reviewed 11/13/2018

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